Vr Aerial Triangulation (VrAirTrig)
Type: Stand-alone application (vrat.exe)
Aerial triangulation measurement and optional adjustment application.
See also: Tutorial Vr Aerial Triangulation
The VrAirTrig with the Layout environment
Vr Aerial Triangulation (VrAirTrig) with VrAdjust is a stand-alone program for the collection and processing of aerial triangulation data
VrAirTrig adheres to the standard Cardinal Systems' philosophy: "easy to learn, easy to use, and affordable".
The project wizard tool helps manage large jobs with the speed and flexibility needed for maximum efficiency in production.
This innovative program enables the technician to layout images of the complete project and to display all readings as either "to be read" or "completed".
VrAirTrig's intuitive interface allows the setup, reading, and export of aerial triangulation measurements on up to 10000 images of unlimited size.
This application allows the collection of strip and tie points on a large number of images and performs a block adjustment using aerial triangulation methods. The VrAdjust and Aerosys adjustment software are integrated directly with VrAirTrig to perform seamless adjustments. In addition, several third party adjustment packages may also be used through an export and import mechanism.
Automatic tie point measurement is supported and requires no DEM approximations or airborne GPS.
Points may also be measured manually or semi-manually using the following methods: Mono-comparator, Semi-automatic correlation assist, Stereo, and multi-image auto propagation. Each method is described in more detail in the VrAirTrig LayoutApplications.
VrAirTrig will start by opening the Main Window.
The VrAirTrig Main Window
The VrAirTrig Main Window contains command pull down menus, a key-in area, two information areas, a progress bar, and the coordinate display.
Command names may be entered in the key-in area at almost any time.
The currently loaded project is shown in the top border of the Main Window.
A command may be started by selecting an item from a drop down menu. Alternatively, a command may be started via key-in.
VrAirTrig is used to measure a common points between images in order to do a block adjustment (aka bundle adjustment). This adjustment calculates the most probable values for the camera exterior orientations and generates XYZ coordinates of all the image points.
VrAirTrig is project based; it requires a project to be created before any processing can be done. A project in VrAirTrig comprises a list of images, camera files, and other parameters required for measurement and adjustment.
Points measured in VrAirTrig can be adjusted using the VrAdjust (AeroSys) option. When using this option, many passes may be taken on the data with an adjustment in between. VrAdjust also helps drive to unmeasured control points and determine blunders. Measurements made in VrAirTrig may also be exported to another adjustment program.
The following files are needed to set a stereo model:
Manual Workflow in VrAirTrig:
The Vr Image Utility program can prepare the images for the project by attaching the strip location, image pixel size, and camera to each image. It can also perform automatic interior orientations. If several programs (such as VrTwo Orientation, Vr Orthophoto, or Vr Aerial Triangulation) will use the same images, Vr Image Utility should be used to set up the images so other programs can import the project file.
Automatic tie point work can be thought of in three stages:
Most AutoTie support issues are, at their root, setup issues. Cameras must be set up correctly. The interior orientations must be done correctly (this is automatic for digital images, but requires fiducial marks to be measured in Image Utility for scanned film images). The images may need strip and photo numbers assigned. Finally, exterior orientations (if available) need to be imported correctly.
Strip and photo numbers are needed for autotie without EOs. There are several ways to set them up on the 'Strip and Photo Numbers' tab of the project wizard. The most basic is to parse them from the image names. Alternatively, if EO's have been imported the software can attempt to determine a set of strip and photo automatically. To use this option click the 'Derive from EOs' button on the Strip and Photo numbers tab. If the fully automatic method fails, AssStr provides a semi-automatic way to accomplish the same task. As a last resort the numbers can be assigned manually.
If EOs are available then it is critical to insure that the EO’s are imported correctly prior to running AutoTie. In particular, it is frequently necessary to add biases to the kappa angles. This is done on the 'Orientations and Control' tab of the project wizard. Once EO's are imported the number of control points that project into each image is displayed in right-must column of the table on this tab. The first thing to check is that the there are control points that project into the images (clicking on column headers will sort the rows by the values in that column). The two most common causes for no control points in the images are: the control file was setup as Easting-Northing but is actually Northing-Easting and the control and EOs are in different coordinate systems. If points project into the images, double clicking on the number of control points an image with display thumbnails of the control point in all images that see it. If the thumbnails appear correct than the setup is good. If the thumbnails appear random than the EOs likely need a kappa bias. Adding a kappa bias is an option when you import EOs as a flat file.
We’ll consider the workflows for images with EO’s and without EO’s separately.
Workflow With EO’s
It is sometime useful to think of this work flow as the quickest way to get a set of EO’s.
The free net adjustment is a very powerful way to clean out miss-matches, and must be used if there are no EOs available. It is however comparatively slow. So, provided that the EO’s that were available to import and are at least reasonably good, it is sufficient to bundle adjust (BunAdj) and clean auto ties (CleAut) until satisfied. Otherwise use free net (FreNet) and clean auto tie (CleAut). Remember though, it is recommended that you back up the ATM files before starting however because clean auto tie is irreversible.
The File pull-down menu from the VrAirTrig Main Window
Sets operating parameters for the VrAirTrig Program.
The VrAirTrig Preferences dialog box
Zoom scale factor (buttons 3, 4)
Several orientations, including Relative Orientation, allow zooming in and out on the images. Zoom scale factor sets the scale factor to use while zooming with button 4 (center mouse button).
Image parameter file (.vim) location
Each image used by VrAirTrig has an associated parameter (.vim) file. This file contains the interior orientation values and other image parameters. The image parameter file has the same name as the image but with a .vim file extension. These parameter files may be stored in the same directory as the images ("Image Folder") or they may be stored in the project folder ("Project Folder").
List available adjustment software. Selection VrAdjust makes Ajdustment/AutoTie layout menu active.
Default stereo display mode for measurement stereo view?
Specifies the mode for stereo viewing:
Exits the VrAirTrig program.
The Camera pull-down menu from the VrAirTrig Main Window
Creates, edits and imports camera calibration parameters.
Creates and edits a new camera calibration file. Prompts the uesr for the file name for the new camera. Camera files in Vr Mapping have a .cam file name extension.
Edits an existing camera calibration file. The camera edited does not need to be one of the current cameras; any existing camera file may be edited. When edit camera starts, the user is prompted for a camera file name. Upon exiting, the has the opportunity to save the modified camera calibration parameters.
The Edit Camera dialog box
Describes the camera for user reference. This description is for information only and is not used in model orientation.
Specifies the units of the coordinate positions (millimeters, inches, or pixels). Many programs used to calibrate handheld cameras output the focal length of the camera in pixels. The coordinates entered to represent the fiducial positions must be in the same units as those specified here.
Defines the camera lens' focal length, the distance from the focal point to the center of the lens. This value is provided by the camera calibration report. Focal length units should be the same as those used for the fiducial positions.
Photo size X Y
Specifies image dimensions. Photo size dimensions should be the same as those used for the fiducial positions.
Calib principal point X Y
Specifies the calibrated principal point (also known as the point of best symmetry). This coordinate position is available from the camera calibration report. Calibrated principal point coordinate units should be the same as those used for the fiducial positions.
Fiducial X Y
The coordinate positions for up to eight fiducials may be entered and must be in the user-specified Fiducial units. Most aerial cameras have eight fiducials. It is strongly recommended that all eight be entered and used to compute interior orientation. If only four fiducials are used, errors may occur and make residuals useless in determining if the wrong camera calibration was selected.
Lens distortion causes image positions to be displaced from their ideal or true locations. In aerial cameras, these distortions are normally minimal but they can still have an effect on accuracy. Some digital cameras have large lens distortions and radial distortions must be entered for accurate mapping results.
Most camera calibration programs output radial distortion values as polynomial parameters. Though angular parameters are listed, this output type is currently unsupported.
Radial distortions, represented by concentric rings about the camera lens' calibrated principal point, may be entered as distance parameters. The radial distortions shown below are from a small format camera and show high radial distortion values.
Defining radial distortions by distance
Radial distance increment
Represents the distance between the concentric rings that make up the distance parameters. Radial distance increment units should be the same as those used for Fiducial positions.
Distortion value n
Specifies distortion values for each distance. There may be up to 15 values. Distortion value units should be the same as those used for Fiducial positions.
Computation of radial distortions by angular parameters is currently unsupported. Please use distance or polynomial parameters.
Defining radial distortions by angle
The polynomial values and principal point or autocollimation are provided by the camera calibration report. The mathematical model used is based on the Simultaneous Multi-camera Analytical Calibration (SMAC) method. Care should be taken when entering these parameters, as entry errors cause model orientation errors and distortions which affect model accuracy.
Entry of Exponential Notation
The k0-k4 values and the p1-p4 values are entered into the Polynomial Parameters dialog box in exponential notation. The values entered from the USGS camera calibration report may have the decimal place moved one position to the left depending on the number entered. For example:
USGS value: 0.1403x10-3
Value typed: .1043e-3
Shown value: 1.403000e-004
The Radial Distortions dialog box for entering the polynomial parameters
Defines up to five K coefficient values. These are coefficients of symmetric radial lens distortion from the camera calibration report. These values are entered in exponent form.
Defines to four P coefficient values. These are the coefficients of de-centering distortion from the camera calibration report. These values are entered in exponent form.
PPA X Y
Defines the principal point of autocollimation as provided by the camera calibration report.
The Coordinates pull-down menu from the VrAirTrig Main Window
The Coordinates menu provides functions to create and edit coordinate files. It is possible to import existing coordinate files with a simple name change. Please refer to Vr Mapping Coordinate File Format for information on the format and layout of the coordinate files used in VrTwo.
Creates a new coordinate file. The Format, State Plane Zone, Datum, UTM Zone and Units in the Edit Header dialog box are for user reference only. Prompts the user for a coordinate file name and coordinate file parameters.
The New Coordinate dialog box
Specifies the fields to be placed in the coordinate file and their order. Options are:
Name X Y Z Cx Cy, Cz
Name Y X Z Cy Cx, Cz
X Y Z Name Cx Cy, Cz
Y X Z Name Cy Cx, Cz
Name X Y Z
Name Y X Z
X Y Z Name
Y X Z Name
X Y Name
Y X Name
Name – Point name
X Y Z – Coordinates
Cx Cy Cz – X Y Z point weights
Edits coordinates in an existing coordinate file. Editing options include Add, Change, and Delete. When this command is started, the user can open any coordinate (.cor) file and the edited file may be saved upon exiting the application.
The Edit Coordinates dialog box
Sorts the coordinate file based on the point name.
Searches for a coordinate point by name. If the point name is found, it becomes the current point.
Edits the coordinate file header.
Defines the point name. It must be alphanumeric and may be up to 32 characters in length.
X Y Z
Defines coordinate values for the point.
CX CY CZ
Defines point weights. These may be used in the coordinate file depending on the File Layout. Normally, point weights are expressed in ground units.
Adds the current point to the coordinate file
Updates the current point with the current Name, X, Y, Z, CX, CY and CZ values.
Deletes the current point.
Converts an existing coordinate file from its current coordinate projection to a different one. Reads an existing VrOne coordinate file, re-projects it, and writes a new coordinate file. See Coordinate Projections for more information.
The Coordinate File Project Conversion dialog box
Input coordinate file
Defines the name of the existing coordinate (.cor) file.
Output coordinate file
Defines the name of the output coordinate file.
Input coordinate file projection
Defines or edits the input coordinate file projection. See Coordinate Projections for more information.
The input coordinate projection definition dialog box
Output coordinate file projection
Defines or edits the output coordinate file projection. See Coordinate Projections for more information.
The output coordinate projection definition dialog box
Some points do not have values for all three coordinate axes. The Null Axis Value is an arbitrary figure to which one of a point's 3 coordinate values can be assigned to indicate that it is lacking that value. This value is typically zero, but in cases where zero is a valid coordinate value in the map data, an extreme value like -999 should be used. For example, an elevation-less point could be assigned the coordinates (10, 10, -999) to indicate that it lacks a Z coordinate.
The Null Axis definition dialog box
The Project pull-down menu from the VrAirTrig Main Window
Creates a new project and allows Edit Project to be engaged.
Opens an existing project. It is not necessary to close the current project before opening another. All current project parameters are saved automatically before another is opened.
Edits the current project.
The Edit Project dialog box
Manages project and photo parameters. If there is already a project set up in Image Utility and Interior Orientations have been performed, use the Import ImageUtil option. This reads the list of images from the Image Utility project and automatically recognizes the image settings and interior orientation.
Each image has a camera file, strip location, pixel size, and "open in layout" flag. Use this dialog to assign the correct parameters to all images in the project. A camera file must be added to the project from this dialog before any photos can be added. The photo strip and photo numbers are displayed in the list of photos and are extracted from each photo name. The parameters may be set by pressing the Edit Photo Name Format button.
Placing the mouse pointer on an image and dragging highlights the image in the dialog box. Holding the shift key and clicking the mouse highlights a range of images. Holding the control (Ctrl) key and clicking the mouse highlights additional images. The first four fields ("Project cameras", "Project film strip location", "Photo pixel size" and "Open in layout?") in the Edit Project dialog box are templates which can be copied to a photo or group of photos. To copy these parameters, highlight the photo or photos and press the Apply button on the right side of the of the template field.
Defines up to 10 project cameras (.cam) files.
Film strip location
Specifies the film strip location in reference to the rotation of the image. This parameter is not dependent on the direction of flight, but the orientation of the image as viewed by the user. See Film Strip Location for more information.
Photo pixel size
Defines the size of each pixel based on the fiducial coordinate units. Normally expressed in millimeters, but may be in inches or pixels. If the fiducial coordinates are in pixels, the photo pixel size is 1.
Open in layout?
A project in VrAirTrig may consist of thousands of photos. During the measurement process, it is useful to work in one area, so it is not necessary to display all of the project photos in the Layout window. The "Open in layout" flag may be set for a photo or group of photos.
Adds photos to the project using the Vr Open file dialog box.
Import Image Util
Imports photo parameters from the Image Utility program into the VrAirTrig project given that the current project was already set up in Image Utility.
Deletes the highlighted photo or group of photos.
NOTE: Pressing the button deletes without verification.
Toggles display of folder names with the display of each photo name and camera name.
Sorts the photos by "Strip-Photo Numbers" or "Photo Names".
Change Photo Folder
Changes the location of a photo or group of photos by replacing the file folder name. This operation does not move the photos.
Edit Photo Name Format
Various processes require use of an image strip and photo number. These numbers are typically encoded in the image file name and the Photo Name Format describes the method for extracting this information. See Photo Name Format for more information.
Edit Point Name Format
Determines the format for the point names and the initial poisitions for these points when photo strips are prepared with pass points. See Point Name Format for more information.
Edit Project Layout
During the measurement process, points are transferred from one photo to another as they are propagated to all photos they fall within. For this process, the approximate project photo overlap, sidelap, and strip numbering direction must be known.
Project Layout dialog box
Project photo overlap (%)
Defines the project photo overlap as a percentage. The typical overlap for aerial phtography is 60%.
Project strip sidelap
Defines the project photo sidelap as a percentage. The typical sidelap for aerial photography is 30%.
Project strip order
Defines project strip numbering order. Options are "Bottom to top", "Top to bottom", and "Strip". "Strip" defines flight lines that are continuous strips without overlap.
Moves the contents of a VrAirTrig project project to another file. This routine does not move any of the files to another folder, but assumes they have already been moved. The Change Drive routine modifies the necessary VrAirTrig parameter files to reflect the move.
The Change Drive dialog box
There are some limitations on the data that can be moved to another folder:
If there is more than one camera file, the camera files must first be reassigned in Edit Project.
The Change Drive dialog box showing the new location for the project files
Directory containing image files
Defines the directory that contains all project images.
Defines the new location of the coordinate (.cor) file.
Defines the new location of the camera (.cam) file.
SS Import Wizard (SsImp)
Creates a VrAt project from Socket Set import files.
The camera file must have been created previously, and TIFs, IOPs, and IPFs must reside in a single directories.
This function is currently not active.
The Export pull-down menu from the VrAirTrig Main Window
Measurements made in VrAirTrig can be exported in several formats, including Albany, JFK, PATB, and VRAT (VrAirTrig). Other aerial triangulation programs can use these measurements to perform the bundle adjustment. The measurements can also be used by the VrTwo Orientation program for model setups.
The Export dialog for output in PATB format
Output file name
Defines the output file name for the measurements.
Specifies units for the output file (Millimeters or Microns).
Photo and point name format
Determines the output name format. The exported photo and point names may be output in numberic ("Create number") or alphanumeric ("Create name") characters . "Create number" removes any non-numeric characters from the photo and point names during output. "Create name leaves photo and point names unchanged.
Apply radial distortions and PPA to measurements?
Specifies whether radial distortions and principal point offsets should be applied to the measurement output. "No" should be selected if the target triangulation program, to which the file is being exported, will apply these values.
The About pull-down menu from the VrAirTrig Main Window
Checks the Cardinal Systems web page for a more current version of the software.
The Check for a New Version dialog box
Check for new version at startup
Specifies whether to check for a new version on program startup.
Display dialog if new version is available
Specifies whether to display a dialog box if a new version is available.
Displays the current software version and the software solution platform (32 or 64-bit) for the currently running version.
The About dialog box
Displays the copyrights of the third party software used by Vr Mapping.
Three measurement environments are available:
Measures points on photos in a Relative Orientation format. Two photos are used at a time. This method measures pass, tie, and control points between overlapping and sidelapping photos. It starts from the Layout environment.
There are three point measurement methods. Any of the three methods can be used at each point. Ground features change from point to point; one point may be on a city street and the next in trees. No one measurement technique will suit every point. The three measurement methods are:
Before Measure starts, two photos must be identified. These photos must be overlapping and/or sidelapping.
The VrAirTrig Measurement environment
Measure launches several windows:
1. Menu Keys Dialog Box - Displays the active menu and the functions associated with it. Buttons in this window may be pressed with the mouse or engaged with their associated function keys (F1-F12). During measurement, several of these buttons are mapped onto the mouse. and in these cases the mouse buttons should be used instead of pressing the buttons in the dialog box. When a button has been mapped to the mouse, the necessary click is indicated with "Left", "Right", or "Center". This allows actions to be taken without moving the cursor during measurement.
2. At Measure Dialog Box - Displays point names, left and right coordinates, model coordinates and residuals for each point, along with the current Total RMS Error. Displays unmeasured points in red. Displays measured points in blue.
3. Overview Windows - Display the entire left and right photos.
4. Measurement Windows - Used for measurements. Measurements are made by placing the cursor in one of the windows and performing one of the three measurement methods.
Each measurement window's top border contains the photo name and the measurement status ("MEASURE" or "HOLD") of that side's point.
Measurement window indicating the point may be measured
If the status is MEASURE, a point can be measured in that side.
Measurement window indicating the point is held and cannot be measured
If a point in the left or right side has already been measured in two or more other photos (two or more rays), it is flagged "HOLD". A held point may not be measured unless it is released by pressing "Release Side" (button 8). This is a safety feature, ensuring that points that have been measured in two or more photos are not moved when a new photo is observed. To release a side, press F8 while keeping the cursor in the target measurement window. If one side is flagged as HOLD and the other side is flagged as MEASURE, the point in the MEASURE side may be measured to match the point in the HOLD side.
If one side is held and the other side can be measured, the cursor can be in either measurement window when correlation is used. It does not need to be on the point when the "Correlate" button is pressed. The measure side will be correlated to the held side.
To change a point location in all photos, use "Remeasure point" (button 9).
The following are the functions available in "Measure":
The VrAirTrig Layout Measure Main Menu Keys
1 Measure (Left)
Measures points. Press button 1 in one of the measurement windows to measure a point. The same point is measured in the other window.When in one of the Overview windows, the cross cursor will change to a square. Clicking the left mouse button centers the measurement window to the area under the cursor.
2 Center window (Right)
Centers the current window at the current cursor location.
3 Zoom out
Zooms the current window out x2. If the cursor is in one of the Measurement windows, both Measurement windows are zoomed out.
4 Zoom in (Center)
Zooms the current window in x2. If the cursor is in one of the Measurement windows, both Measurement windows are zoomed in.
5 Next point
Moves to the next point.
Changes from the left and right measurement method to a stereo method. The two Measurement windows are replaced by a single stereo window for measurement of the current point. See Stereo Measurement for more information.
The cursor is positioned (do not press any buttons) in one of the measurement windows. Then, "Correlate" (use F7 to avoid moving the cursor) is engaged to find the corresponding location in the other photo. The correlation will display the matching point in the other measurement window. The cursor may be placed in the left or right measurement window. After correlation, the results are displayed in the At Measure dialog box and in the Menu Keys dialog box. A result of 0.9 to 1.0 is good, 0.8 to 0.9 acceptable, 0.7 to 0.8 poor, and anything less than 0.7 unacceptable (correlation should be rejected).
8 Release side
Releases the side in which the cursor is currently positioned. This side can now be remeasured. Useful if a side is being held because it has been measured in two or more photos
9 Remeasure point
Displays image patches of all images which contain the point. A point may be remeasured using one of the three measurement methods.
* Image Levels
Makes level adjustments to opened images. Input, output, and gamma settings can be altered. Level adjustment settings can be saved with each image so that it they are automatically loaded when the image opens.
The Image Levels Adjustment dialog box
Press "Ok" in the At Measure window to exit Measure and return to the previous Layout menu.
Displays image patches of all images which contain the point. A point may be remeasured using one of the three measurement methods: mono-comparator mode, correlate mode, or measure in stereo. Point hold flags are ignored; any point can be changed.
The VrAirTrig Remeasure Point environment
The VrAt Remeasure Point Menu Keys
1 Remeasure (Left)
Remeasures the point at the current cursor location in the image patch.
2 Center (Right)
Centers the current image patch at the cursor location.
3 Zoom out
Zooms out all image patch displays x2.
4 Zoom in (Center)
Zooms in all image patch displays x2.
5 Toggle meas flag
Allows an image patch to be identified for its flag to be toggled between measured and unmeasured. Useful when Remeasure is started using a point that has not yet been measured, as is the case when Drive Point is used in Layout.
Allows to image patches to be identified and starts the Stereo Measurement application. See Stereo Measurement for more information.
Allows a source image patch to be identified and target image patches to be correlated to the base patch.
Exits Remeasure Point and returns to the previous menu.
The VrAirTrig Stereo Measurement window (Anaglyph)
During the Measure and Remeasure Point applications, a point can be measured in stereo. Once the point is measured, the program returns to the previous environment.
The VrAirTrig Stereo Measure Menu Keys
Measures the point in stereo and records the position on both images.
2 Move One/Both
Toggles the movement of the images from both moving to one moving. When the mode is set to one image moving, parallax can be cleared at that location.
3 Toggle Move Side
Toggles the image side to move between left and right when clearing parallax.
4 Reset Rotation
Resets the current image rotation. See Rotating One Image.
5 Reset Scale
Resets the current image scale to 1.0. See Scaling One Image.
6 Next Point
Advances to the next point
Correlates the two images with a common point.
Sets stereo parameters.
9 Rotate 90
Rotates both images 90 degrees. Useful when viewing stereo between strips, as sidelap does not produce viewable stereo in this situation.
Toggles between standard and anaglyph stereo display modes.
Quits stereo mode and returns to the previous environment without making a measurement.
Additional Features and Controls When in Stereo Mode
The Vr Mapping coordinate file (.cor) comprises a header and a list of point names, coordinates, and optional weights. Fields may be arranged in several different orders. The file is an ASCII file and may be viewed with any text editor. Documentation about the file format is included in each file header. The following is a typical Vr Mapping coordinate file.
# Coordinate File
# Layout - Field Order Min number of fields
# 0 NAME X Y Z CX CY CZ 3
# 1 NAME Y X Z CY CX CZ 3
# 2 X Y Z NAME CX CY CZ 4
# 3 Y X Z NAME CY CX CZ 4
# 4 NAME X Y Z 3
# 5 NAME Y X Z 3
# 6 X Y Z NAME 4
# 7 Y X Z NAME 4
# 8 X Y NAME 3
# 9 Y X NAME 3
# Format - Coordinate format
# 0 State plane
# 1 UTM
# 2 Geographic Decimal Degrees
# SpZone - State plane zone
# Datum - Datum
# 0 NAD1927
# 1 NAD1983
# UtmZone - UTM Zone
# 1-60 UTM zone number
# Units - Coordinate units
# 0 Us Foot
# 1 International Foot
# 2 Meters
# 3 Inches
# 4 Pixels
201 837831.194130 951352.037020 303.8200
202 836399.079330 951266.642540 337.6800
203 837994.618340 950634.951710 299.6000
204 836711.670600 950565.198920 326.3200
205 836018.411470 950724.804370 309.2900
Any record starting with a # symbol is considered a comment. The Layout is the most important keyword in the file as it specifies the order of the fields.
Importing a File to Use as a Vr Mapping Coordinate (.cor) File
Any ASCII file in the following format may be read by Vr Mapping. The file must have a .cor file name extension and the fields must be separated by one or more blanks or tabs. Following is an example of an ASCII file that would be acceptable to reading by Vr Mapping. This file consists of a point name followed by X Y and Z.
35 1410993.867000 667652.883000 268.0300
36 1421351.907000 670064.772000 251.8240
37 1432756.960000 660002.435000 438.6740
38 1426080.595000 651648.623000 417.5070
39 1437426.118000 648649.673000 256.5350
99999 1440539.957000 647417.838000 241.1880
2727011 1410534.575000 658885.235000 294.5090
2727012 1412335.275000 659061.598000 280.9620
2727021 1410279.378000 661225.872000 260.6650
2727022 1412458.095000 661055.148000 284.6200
2727023 1413884.366000 661259.361000 425.0660
2727031 1410433.453000 663554.024000 267.3830
2727032 1412556.566000 663154.921000 244.1890
2727033 1414464.428000 663015.598000 460.9970
Location of the cameras data strip in reference to the rotation of the image. This parameter is not dependent on the direction of flight, but rather the orientation of the image as seen by the user. The following is an example of strip locations.
The data strip is to the left.
This is the same model as above, but with the images rotated 180 degrees. The strip location is now to the right.
Various processes, such as aerial triangulation and model orientation, require use of an image strip and photo number. These numbers are typically encoded in the image file name and the Photo Name Format describes the method for extracting this information.
The parameters describe the Photo Name Format. If the separator character is used to describe the format, the remainder of the parameters are not needed and can be ignored. If the file name does not have a separator character, the start character and number of characters must be used.
The photo separator character may be Underbar ‘_’, Dash ‘-‘, or Tilde (~). Following are several examples of the Photo Name Format:
Photo name: 23-56.tif
Photo separator character: Dash
Start character for strip number: any
Number of digits for strip number: any
Start character for photo number: any
Number of digits for photo number: any
Strip number: 23
Photo number: 56
Photo file name: 23056.tif
Photo separator character: None
Start character for strip number: 1
Number of digits for strip number: 2
Start character for photo number: 3
Number of digits for photo number: 3
Strip number: 23
Photo number: 56
Photo file name: 23056.tif
Photo separator character: None
Start character for strip number: 1
Number of digits for strip number: 3
Start character for photo number: 4
Number of digits for photo number: 2
Strip number: 230
Photo number 56
When photo strips are prepared with pass points, the Point Name Format determines the format for the point names and the initial position for these points. The number of pass points per photo can be set (maximum 9).
The Point Name Format dialog box
Point Name Format
Defines the format for the point names when preparing a strip of photos. The following are the options for this format and examples of each:
Pass Point Zone
Up to nine pass points may be placed on each photo. The locations of these points are called zones and the number of pass points and the zone locations may be selected by using the check boxes next to each zone.
How do we densify a block of measurements? Some users want to use AutoTie only after they have minimally tied a block of images manually. The Auto Densify (AutDen) was written for them. It does not look for any new overlaps, but adds more data to those that are already known. That is if imageA and imageB already have some ties between them then it will attempt to add more. If EO’s have been imported (see ImpGps) this process will also extend matches into new images.
What is the best way to thin data? Least Squares match (LsMat). The LsMat command can be used to thin data, refine data, and push measurements through to more images (if EO’s have been imported).
How do we deal with EO’s in one coordinate system and control in another? Auto Tie is designed to work in any rectangular coordinate system. So the approach taken is to do the auto tie in one system and then switch to the other.
What is the fastest/best way to run a strip job? This answer depends, but the short version is: Just like any other block. If you have EO’s then use the work flow given EO’s. If you don’t you must follow the workflow without EO’s, which requires the user to provide some ties between the strips.
In the special case of single strip job the SemTie work flow is frequently the fastest whether you have EOs or not. This is counterintuitive, but to run SemTie does not require EO’s to be imported or even a correct camera file. Further on a single strip no manual measures are required. Hence, as soon as strip and photo numbers can be assigned it can run—users can worry about importing EO’s, setting up cameras, etc. later if at all. Users with small jobs really appreciate this simplicity.
Can blocks be run in sections? Yes, the Auto Tie Parameter ‘Min Auto Tie Sequence number’ allows user to start auto tie numbering arbitrarily and avoid duplicate point names in sub-blocks. For example: In a 30 strip job, strips 1-11 could be run with a ‘Min Auto Tie Sequence number’ of 0, strips 11-21 with a ‘Min Auto Tie Sequence number’ of 1000000, and strips 21-30 with a ‘Min Auto Tie Sequence number’ of 2000000 (If there might be more than a million auto ties in a sub-block use additional zeros). Care must be taken that the ATM files of the separate runs do not overwrite each other. The surest way to do this is to set up different projects (IN DIFFERENT DIRECTORIES) that reference the sub sets of images, but it can also be accomplished with the BacAtm command. The ATM files can then even be combined for a final bundle.
How do we get more multi-ray (cross-strip) points? The best way to do this is to get lots of along strip matches and good EO’s then use LsMat to push the along strip matches through to the other images. The best way to go about doing it depends on what data is already available. For instance:
In all of these examples the LS match max axial sigma parameter needs to be set well. If it is too small it there will be too few matches. A range of (0.05-0.25) usually works well.
How do we know if the points are good? Statistics and residuals are great tools (as in bundle residual reports), but in addition I highly recommend that users look at a sample of the points. Choose cross strip points scattered around the project to get a feel for their quality. In particular watch for systematic errors (features match within strips but not across them). Running a free net is also a good idea. It can be slow, but it will also reveal any problems in the block more reliably than a bundle. A few strategically added manual points can also help gauge the quality of a block—if the bundle wants to flag the manual points as blunders there may be an issue with the auto ties. In short, be conscientious, particularly in forests and jungles. If a block would be hard for a human it will be hard for a computer.